Glossary and notes

*In a poetic and metaphorical—though never literal—sense there are ideas and qualities that endure as Godliness. Theology


YHWH – יהוה The ancient name of the God of Israel

GOD – אלהים The English term for ELOHIM

BRIT- ברית Usual translation for this is Covenant: See Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) “Meaning of the Divine Covenant

Mishkan – משכן Tabernacle. The Hebrew mishkan literally means “abode” (“that I shall abide in their midst”). It is, of course, a portable sanctuary, to be carried from encampment to encampment in the wilderness… Alter, Robert. The Five Books of Moses: A Translation with Commentary (p. 599). W. W. Norton & Company. Kindle Edition. Also – אוהל מועד Tent of Meeting

Presence – כבוד Kavod: Rabbi Ron Aigen, Renew Our Days – A Book of Jewish Prayer and Meditation, 1996

Offering – קרבן  Often translated as sacrifice

[It] is the only mechanism for forgiveness in the book of Leviticus. There is no suggestion in Leviticus that repentance alone can bring forgiveness for violations of the laws, no indication that one can appeal to YHWH’s mercy, His grace, or His kindness for atonement. Indeed, the words “repentance” (shûb), “mercy” (rachmîm), “grace” (chen), and “kindness” (chesed) do not occur in Leviticus. Friedman, Richard Elliott. Commentary on the Torah (p. 1511). HarperOne. Kindle Edition.

Now, in the absence of sacrifice, other means of atonement have risen in importance. Notably, the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) has become the most sacred and widely observed holiday; whereas, in the Torah, Passover stands out as the first and foremost of the holidays. Friedman, Richard Elliott. Commentary on the Torah (p. 1512). HarperOne. Kindle Edition.


English translation of the Biblical text are original translations formulated after years of study. My recommended sources are:

Robert Alter’s translations:

Richard Elliott Friedman’s commentary:

Hebrew translation of the Midrash texts are by Anita Tamari, she has added much to the quality of this website.